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  Circuit and system mitigation should be implemented to eliminate or reduce the
risk of devices susceptible to these effects.
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Heavy Ion SEE on a 32-bit Digital Signal Processor
Usability of SEE published data
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SDRAM Error Types new
Total ionized dose degradation of semiconductor devices and different types of materials results from low and steady flux of energetic electrons and protons that exist in the natural space environment.
Prompt dose effect in semiconductor devices and circuits are the result of a flash x-ray (FXR) or a burst of energetic electrons. Such a pulse can induce logic upset, or can induce latchup or burnout in some semiconductor devices.
Displacement damage in semiconductor devices are caused by exposure to a large flux of protons or neutrons. Protons or neutrons interact with the atomic structure of semiconductor device displacing them and causing electrical parametric degradation. High doses of neutron flux is generated by a nuclear detonation.
Single event effects in semiconductor devices are caused be energetic cosmic ray and solar flare particles. These particles are energetic ions and protons that exist in the natural space environment. Some effects are catastrophic and others can cause functional upsets or failures.
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